MATLAB Code of thesis (Effective Zone Radius of Sand Compaction Piles In Liquefiable Soils)




Effective Zone Radius of Sand Compaction Piles In Liquefiable Soils

The Sand Compaction Pile (SCP) method is one of the most important and cost-effective techniques of soil improvement in many countries since 1950 to prevent liquefaction and to increase the bearing capacity for different type of soils. The impact loading technique is the first method to compact the sand pile, substituted by the vibrational loading technique and then developed to the most recent method which is the static-rotational loading technique. The affected zone radius of SCP is usually evaluated using the empirical design methods. It should be noted that the empirical methods conventionally consider the improved soil as a whole mass and result in an equivalent soil properties which is a rough estimation of soil behavior. Cavity expansion theory is a robust and useful approach, based on expansion of a cylindrical cavity starting from zero radius in an infinite soil mass which can be extended to the complex design problems such as sand compaction pile by incorporating soil nonlinearity.

In the present study, the results from the finite element based software (Plaxis 2D.V8.2) and the code programming in Matlab 7.1 are attained to properly investigate the affected zone radius of sand compacted piles by accounting the developed cavity expansion theory and soil softening behavior in the plastic zone. The model facilitates the evaluation of volumetric strain, revised elastic modulus, relative density, void ratio and other soil properties at different distances from the pile center due to applied large deformation. At last, the advantages and the limitations of the implemented theory are discussed.

Keywords: liquefaction, Sand compaction pile, Effective zone radius, Cavity expansion theory.

References :

[1] Yoshida, N., Japanese Geotechnical Society, “Remedial Measures against Soil Liquefaction”, Taylor & Francis, 370 pp. 1998.

[2] Kramer, Steven L.” Geotechnical Earthquake. Engineering”, Prentice Hall, 653 pp. 1996.

[3] Arduino, P. “Dynamic Stiffness of Piles in Liquefiable Soils”, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA, May 30, 2002. 22.

[4] Meymand, P. (1998).”Shaking Table Scale Model Tests of Nonlinear Soil-Pile-Superstructure Interaction in Soft Clay”, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

[5] Bardet, J. P., N. Mace , and T. Tobita,(1999), “Liquefaction-induced ground deformation and failure“, Report, Civil Engineering Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

[6] Ogawa, M. (Mar. 14, 1972).”Machines for Continuously Forming Sand piles”, United States Patent, No. 3648467.

[7] [Online]. Fudo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo,

[8] [Online]. [22 Sep 2008]

[9] Kitazume, M. “The Sand Compaction Pile Method” , Taylor & Francis Group, 232 pp. 2005.

[10] Nozu, M., Ohbayashi, J., Matsunaga, Y. “ Application of the static sand compaction pile method to loose sandy soil”, International Symposium on Problematic Soils, IS-Tohoku’98, Sendai, Japan, 28-30 October 1998, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1, pp. 751-755.

[11] Moffat, B.  S.,  P.E. (2007).  “Soil   Remediation Techniques for Reduction of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction “,Senior Structural Engineer, Jacobs Civil Inc.

[12] Department of The Army U.S. Army Corps OF Engineers,” Engineering and Design Settlement Analysis “, EM 1110-1-1904, 30 sep 1990, pp. 6-7.

[13] Dickenson, S. E., McCullough, N. J. (2002)”Assessment and Mitigation of Liquefaction Hazards to Bridge Approach Embankments in Oregon”, Oregon Department of Transportation Research Group.  Spr 361.

[14] Andrus, R., Chung, R.(1995) .“Cost-effective Ground Improvement for Liquefaction Remediation near Existing Lifelines”, 27th Joint Meeting of the U.S.-Japan. Cooperative Program in Natural Resources Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects, Tsukuma, Japan, pp. 115-123.

[15] Portar, P. L.,(2008).” Soil or Ground Improvement”, CEG 4011, Lecture 14

[16] Nishimura, S., Shimizu, H., (2008).” Reliability-based design of ground improvement for liquefaction mitigation”, Structural Safety, 30, pp.200-216.

[17] Aboshi, H., Mizuno, Y., Kuwabara, N., “present state of sand compaction pile in Japan”, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1991.

[18] Brinkgreve,R.B.J., Et al.”Plaxis2DV.8.2 Reference Manual” A.A. Balkema Publishers. (2002).

[19] Arulmoli, K., Muraleetharan, K. K., Hossain, M. M., and Fruth, L. S. (1992). “VELACS Soil Data Rep”. The Earth Technology Corporation, Irvine, Calif.

[20] Vesic, A.  S. (1972),” Expansion of cavities in infinite soil mass”, J.Soil Mech. And Found. Div., ASCE, 98(3), pp. 265-290.

[21] Gupta, R.C., (2002),”Finite Strain Analysis For Expansion Of Cavities In Granular Soils”, Soils And Foundations, 42(6), pp. 105-115.

[22] Vaziri, H., Wang, X., (1992),” Theoretical Solutions For The Problem Of A Cylindrical Cavity Expansion In A Mohr-Coulomb Material”, Computers and Structures, 48(5), pp. 961-962.

[23] Salgado, R., Mitchell, J., and Jamiolkowski, M. (1997). ”Cavity Expansion and Penetration Resistance in Sand.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 123(4), pp. 344–354.


There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “MATLAB Code of thesis (Effective Zone Radius of Sand Compaction Piles In Liquefiable Soils)”