Lung cancer is the type of cancer in which there is unchecked growth of unusual cells either in one or in both the lungs. These anomalous cells do not perform the functions of healthy human cells and do not mature into normal cells. This abnormality affects the proper regular functioning of the lung of supplying oxygen to the human body through blood. Though there are many advances in treatment procedures, the lung cancer which is at an advanced stage or late stage is not often easily curable. The field of lung cancer screening is a very challenging, well-paced and interdisciplinary.

It is not free from controversies either. The perfect circumstance is to look the screening to permit it to develop as a general wellbeing technique.

Types of Lung Cancer

The lung cancers are usually classified into based on their appearance in microscope:
1. Small Cell lung cancers
2. Non-small cell lung cancers
The treatment of these two types of lung cancers is quite different as they have varied features for growth and spread. So it is extremely important to differentiate between Small cell lung cancers and Non-small cell lung cancers.

The Problem and Current challenges

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most widely recognized sort of lung tumor, is one of genuine ailments bringing on death for human beings. Computeraided diagnosis and survival prediction of NSCLC is of great significance in diagnosis and treatment of people suffering from lung cancer . The prognosis of lung malignancy is still poor, with five-year survival rate of roughly 10% in many nations. NSCLC accounts for the majority (84%) of lung cancer. Two major types of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma (including bronchi alveolar carcinoma) which is about 40% and squamous cell carcinoma about 25 – 30% .


Adenocarcinoma [3] is a kind of malignancy that is formed in glands which secretes mucus or fluids in different parts of the body. It generally occurs in the following cancer forms:
1. Lung cancer- Adenocarcinoma being the most common type of Non-small cell lung cancer.
2. Prostate cancer- This is the type of cancer that occurs in the prostate glands, adenocarcinoma being the cause of 99% of such cancers.
3. Pancreatic cancer- This type of adenocarcinoma occurs in pancreatic ducts of human beings.
4. Colorectal cancer- This adenocarcinoma occurs in the intestinal glands inside colon and / or rectum being the cause of 95% of colon or rectal cancers.


Diagnosis of adenocarcinoma

Diagnosis, generally differ as per the location where the cancer occurs. The tests for diagnosis include:
1. Biopsy– The surgical removal of specimen of unusual tissue in the body. The pathologists examine the dissected tissue to identify the carcinoma. After the biopsy and it is known that the cancer is present, analysis is done to find out the cancer originated from the location it is found or elsewhere in the body.
2. Magnetic resonance imaging- MRI as it is popularly known is a noninvasive restorative test that doctors use to analyze and treat medical conditions. It uses radio frequency pulses, magnetic fields to produce detailed cross sectional images of body structures.
3. Computerized tomography- These are X-ray tests which create cross sectional images of organs, human body using X-rays and with help of computer systems. CT scans are also done during the course of the treatment to check the extent and adequacy of current treatment.

Adenocarcinoma treatment and therapy options

Usually the treatment for adenocarcinoma is provided based on the region on the human body it grows. But generally the treatment procedures include:
1. Surgery- Adenocarcinoma is treated with removal of destructive glandular tissue, and also some tissues that surrounds it. Insignificantly obtrusive surgical treatment strategies can decrease the healing time and reduce the risk of contamination after the surgery.
2. Radiation therapy- Radiation therapy is used alongside the combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Sophisticated radiation therapy, to target adenocarcinoma tissues, takes the aid of image guidance before and after the treatment. This procedure spares the healthy tissues from being damaged due to radiation.
3. Chemotherapy-The use of drugs for the treatment of cancer cells is called chemotherapy. The drugs kill the carcinogenic cells in a specific region of the body or the entire body. Chemotherapy can also be used in combination of radiation therapy and surgery to increase the adequacy of the treatment.


Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Sometime ago, squamous cell carcinoma [4] were more regular than adenocarcinomas. At present squamous cell carcinomas represent about around 25 % of the whole NSCLC cases. Otherwise called epidermoid carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas most often times occur in the bronchi within the central region of the chest.
This sort of lung tumor frequently stays inside the lung. This cancer spreads through the lymph nodes and creates cavities. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually found in the regions of the body affected by UV rays from the sun, long term exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, exposure to radiation of any form.


The usual symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma 2 are coughing up blood, Wheezing (high pitched whistling sound occurring while a person breathing in or breathing out), constant cough. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually found in big airways. They therefore usually show symptoms at an early stage as compared to other forms of lung cancer. They usually obstruct the airways of the lungs causing infections like pneumonia and damage part of the lung. There is a syndrome called Pancoast syndrome. The syndrome starts at the beginning of the lungs  and move on to other parts of the body adjacent to them, is mostly caused by Squamous cell carcinoma. People with squamous cell carcinoma are likewise more inclined to encounter a raised calcium level (hypercalcemia) which can bring about weak muscles and other issues. Hypercalcemia is one of the side effects of paraneoplastic disorder, and is created by a tumor which secrets a hormone-like substance that brings the calcium level up in the blood.


The first step of detection of squamous cell carcinoma is through X-rays when there are any unusual abnormalities in the lungs. The other diagnostic methods are:
1. CT Scan- The computed tomography of the chest aids pathologists visualize the lungs and vessels inside them through non-invasive imaging techniques. The technique also involves injecting a dye known as contrast dye into the veins before scanning, so as to enable pathologists to clearly view the lungs.
2. PET Scan-Positron Emission Tomography test is a radiology test which is commonly used alongside other diagnosis measures like CT scan.
3. Bronchoscopy- A process in which large tube is inserted in the passage of mouth or through the nose in order to view the airways under medical supervision.

Stages of Cancer

The squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs can be classified into 4 stages of cancer. In stage 1, the cancer is present within the lung and has not yet spread to other parts and lymph nodes. In stage 2, the tumor already affected the nearby lymph nodes or is in a particular part of the bronchi. In stage 3, the lungs are already affected by the carcinoma. And in stage 4, other regions of the body get affected.