Definition of Cyber Crime
Cyber crime is only different from traditional crime by the way it is carried out or committed. Cyber crime is real-world crime that has migrated into cyberspace .Parker describes the ways in which computers can play a role in cyber crime or computer abuse, (1) by using the computer as an object, or the data in the computer are the objects, of the act, (2) by the computer creating a unique environment or unique form of assets, (3) by the computer being the instrument or the tool of the act, (4) by the computer representing a symbol used for intimidation or deception. Using the computer as a tool can involve something as simple as modifying a traditional crime by using the Internet in some way . Reyes describes the term cyberviolence as “doing psychological harm to, or inciting physical harm against others, thereby breaching laws pertaining to the protection of the person” . This means using the Internet to connect to a device a victim is connected to, in, or near, then use that connected device to cause death, is modification to traditional crime. Criminals who commit traditional murder use tools including: firearms, knives, blunt objects, personal weapons (hands, fists, feet), arson/fire, poison, strangulation, explosives, drowning and narcotics can migrate to cyberspace by using the computer as the instrument or tool of the act. Computers and cyberspace effectively turn into a murder weapon. The legal definition of murder does not specify types of murder weapons, allowing computers as a tool of murder to be incorporated in to the murder statute
Legal Definition of Murder
Shinder and Carr present a simple way to understand the types of cyber crimes by grouping them in two categories. This will also help compare cyber crime to traditional crime.Looking at them in two categories: crimes committed by violent or potentially violent criminals,and nonviolent crimes. These crimes are traditional crimes that have migrated to cyberspace.Types of violent or potentially violent cyber crime include: cyber terrorism, assault by threat, cyber stalking, harassment and child pornography. Under these types of cyber terrorism there is an array of actual violent activities that result in murder. Thus creating murder by Internet. These violent activities include: “sabotaging air traffic control computer systems, infiltrating water treatment plant computer systems, hacking into hospital databases, and interrupting the electrical power grid” . Types of nonviolent crimes committed include: theft, fraud, financial crimes, trespass, vandalism, gambling, drug sales, laundering, contraband, advertising/soliciting prostitution, Intellectual property crimes, and forgery.
Individual criminals have their own motivations and usually are
not influenced by outside factors like the more sophisticated criminal entities. The target is specific to one person, or can become serial. The individual criminals that commit crime in cyberspace are typically known as “hackers.” The typical age of individual criminal ranges from all ages, but the typical age for a “hacker” committing cybercrime for financial gain is between 14 and 19. These individuals are important to point out because of their young age and the fact that they are significantly less skilled than the more sophisticated criminal entities. These groups of “hackers” are categorized as “script kiddies” because they use “point-and-click software instead of programming” and the number of “script kiddies” is increasing . If the number of “script kiddies” continue to increase and programs are created and provided that allow individual criminals to engage in murder by ICD’s easily, the level of risk would increase.
Organized criminal groups and gangs
Russia, Japan, Hong Kong, and the United States are among some of the countries where organized crime groups have participated in cyber crime activity. Organized crime groups that have committed cybercrime have primarily focused on traditional organized criminal activity in cyberspace. Reported activities that have migrated to cyberspace have included: narcotics and human trafficking, nuclear smuggling, extortion, prostitution, illegal bookmaking, unlicensed money lending, identity crimes, frauds and scams, money laundering, extortion, selling counterfeit drugs, software piracy and credit card fraud. Organized crime groups have also been reported to migrate to the underground world of cyber crime . Organized crime groups have carried out the cybercrimes themselves, but have also employed “professional” hackers for their specialized or advanced skills . The organized crime entity is more sophisticated and structured compared to the individual criminal entity and have a higher technical skill level to work with. Organized criminal groups can employ or use their resources to have hackers accessible to them
Terrorist group and organization
Terrorist groups have evolved and have become more dangerous and lethal in the past decade. In 2003, “computers seized from al-Qaeda operatives revealed details of U.S. SCADA systems and a group of extremists associated with the Pakistani group Lashkar-e-Taiba conspired to attack the Australian power grid”. These two groups have carried out multiple mass murder operations in the past, indicating they would have no moral issues carrying out mass murder operations by computer and Internet. There have also been other terrorist groups that plotted to attack the UK power grid.Terrorist organizations have the resources to recruit individuals that are highly trained and have advanced technical skills who are in agreement with their cause, and if they can’t, they can afford to purchase cyber criminal botnets or obtain the services of high-level organized crime . Terrorist organizations are larger in number than criminal organizations and have used their resources to surpass them technologically. Nation-State. Many nation-states began moving toward creating and implementing cyber operations capabilities correlating with technological advancement. Brenner stated, “the United States, Russia, the France, Britain, and Israel have the most advanced cyber capabilities”. The resources for these capabilities are unmatched compared to the previous