Service vs. security

The constructs of service before security led to the development of
OPC-UA architecture. Business proficiency pushed improvement of the original design of Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). The development of OPC-UA came about for the provisional layer of common interoperability, information exchange, and process orchestration . As a result, ICS’s acquired a service above security vantage deficiency requested developers to integrate diverse information trees and unify Data Access (DA) with Alarm & Event (A&E) for a singular methodology because of the difficulty attributed to dual data sets between A&E and DA servers and intent to ease data reconciliation . This has moved ICS’s to Internet accessibility, further complicating security and opening the door to event falsification and IC reprogramming techniques.

Corporate vs. industry

Evaluating corporate perspectives against those of industry
provides an understanding of the difficulties of mitigating risks within ICS’s. Relating corporate versus industrial decisions is possible through review of the Basic Control Loop. Shown in Figure 7, the Basic Control Loop presents the important aspect of control.

Figure 7. Basic control loop recreated from On the Structure of Operational Control Systems .

Figure 7. Basic control loop recreated from On the Structure of Operational Control Systems.

Maintaining control occurs through the decision and information process whereby the absence of either reduces efficacy . The operational cycle handled by the control loop indicates that influences for a task come from the corporate and industrial levels. In order to allow business management software to forecast maintenance trends and monitor performance corporate leaders have placed these networks at risk . Corporate decision-making has overlooked the vulnerability of these networks when mingled with enterprise data. While economics is a factor for consideration, failure to weigh continuance of the physical attributes of maintenance and development does not complete the loop. Consideration of the full system is
precedent .